USA House of Representatives Trades Hemp for Food Stamps

3 dozen Cannabis achenes (seeds)

3- dozen Cannabis achenes

Trade ‘hemp‘ for ‘food stamps’…

Or, did the amendment survive because it has no teeth, other than for the limited planting uses of colleges and universities, and only in those states whose legislatures have already legalized the planting of hemp seeds for cultivation (ie. Kentucky).

Here we are in the year 2013…

The 21st century of Walter Cronkite’s then futuristic vision of America.

And, it is the Canadians who plant hectares and hectares of hemp for fiber, seed, protein, and oil.

We buy their god-awful tar sands oil, and then we also buy their crushed hemp seeds.

With less than 1/2 of 1% THC certified (the psycho-active cannabinoid), hemp is still very high in CBD, the anti-psychotic cannabinoid.

The country of Lichtenstein even outlawed their cows from munching on feral hemp leaves because of the prevalence of CBD in hemp leaves, and the fear that CBD may somehow filter into the country’s milk supply.

Which is a good thing!

CBD is anti-psychotic.

And, the less psychotic people in a country, the better, don’t you think?

Especially in America, where ‘kooks’ can walk into the local Walmart and buy enough arsenal to wipe out a full city block of people at the whim of their psychotic flowerings.

The hemp amendment to the Farm Bill 2013 is truly a very small baby step in the direction of returning our fields of grain to the levels of the 1920‘s when we defended our song bird populations from the destruction of their feral seed sources, namely the wild Indian hemp plant.

For almost 100 years now, we Americans have persecuted this most benevolent and non-malevolent food source of our native and migrating song bird populations.

Birds love hemp seeds!

Now, let’s get on with the business of carbon sequestration by planting hectares and hectares of hemp plants to suck in that carbon that our automobiles so profusely extrude.

We will all breath easier when hemp is returned to it’s former status of a viable farming product in the United States.

Robert Hempaz, PhD Trichometry™
Follow me on Twitter @hempaz

Posted in Cannabacaea, Edibles, Intoxication, Law Enforcement, Plant Botany, Plant Chemistry, Psychosis | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

USA 113th Federal Congress HR 689 Med Mj Medical Marijuana y CSA Controlled Substances Act of 1970 Dtd Feb 14 2013

St Patricks Day Parade, Dubln Ireland

St Patricks Day Parade, Dubln Ireland

Flash: Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) is leading a new bipartisan bill that will modify the Federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970, so that anyone acting in compliance with a state medical marijuana law will be immune from federal prosecution.

Please See: http://bit.ly/HR-689

The time has come for America to rethink its marijuana laws.

Public support for reform has grown to an all-time high, and citizens are becoming more vocal and public in their support.

In fact, the voters of two states, Colorado and Washington, recently passed initiatives in last November’s election completely ending the failed policy of marijuana prohibition and making the use and possession of marijuana legal for all adults 21 years of age or older.

In time, voters in many other states will have the chance to make the adult use of marijuana legal.

With changes happening at a rapid pace, it is time for our federal government to listen to the people.

Marijuana prohibition not only has been a colossal failure, but it has also had some very costly consequences.

Each year billions of taxpayer dollars are wasted on the war against marijuana users when the money could be better spent fighting violent crimes.

Do we really need to be wasting valuable resources going after adults who choose to use a substance less harmful than alcohol or tobacco?

While we are spending billions of dollars fighting this ‘war,’ we are also missing out on potentially billions of dollars in tax revenue.

Colorado and Washington have set the wheels in motion, and society is ready for reasonable marijuana laws and regulations.

I’m asking that you listen to the people.

The lack of conversation has been negligent, and harsh prohibitionist laws have failed us.

It’s time for a change; please support HR 689, the medical marijuana law reform bill.

Please write your US congressional representatives today at:

http://bit.ly/AskMPP

Thank you!

Follow me on Twitter at:

http://twitter.com/hempaz

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Anxieties: Real or Repressed?

Young Sigmund Freud

Young Sigmund Freud

Originally post’d by: Robert Hempaz;

Photo of the young Sigmund Freud by: Anonymous

Anxieties!: Real or Repressed?

Repression is the manipulation of the perception of an internal event.

Whereas, ‘Denial’ is the mental manipulation of an external event.” (Kahn, 2002)

The unconscious can becomes manifest through…per Freud *

I. The Interpretation of Dreams via Modern Psychoanalysis (aka Psycho-dynamic Psycho-therapy)

  • II. The Interpretation of ‘Para-Praxes’ and,
  • III. The Interpretation of Neurotic Symptoms

* In addition, through ‘transference’ per Kahn, both patient AND analyst can absorb and reflect each other’s ‘unconscious’.

This little known fact has allowed for the quadrupling of our understanding of psycho-dynamics since the death of Freud in 1939.

“The interpretations of neurotic symptoms can primarily be derived from that period of childhood which is lost to adult consciousness, namely birth through age 7, and the resultant memories that become manifest later on in adult life as paranoid, histrionic traits.” (Freud-Kahn, 2002)

The clinical definition of an ‘Anxiety Attack‘ (AA) is a feeling of helplessness (You’re f’ck’d!) in the face of a real (immediate) or perceived (latent) danger.

An (AA) can be initiated by the ‘ego’ when interacting with incoming stimuli from the external world and when contemplating the likely resultant response from the ‘super-ego‘.

Therefore, the primary question we all ask ourselves when confronted by an unconscious impulse, whether initiated as an impulse from our emotional ‘id’, or whether initiated by a subsequent knock from a previously repressed latent thought is thus:

Should the ‘ego’ authorize the engagement of the ‘id’ suggested activity or should the ‘ego’ authorize the activity of the unconscious ‘repression’ contrary to the risk-averse, loudspeaker, hazard warnings of the ‘super-ego’?

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

The loose, unconscious distortions of logic and reality that exist in the domain of the ‘unconscious’ that were disclosed by Freud and thereafter called the ‘Primary Mental Processes‘ do start to act upon the human psyche during the developmental time frame of birth to age (7) in the form of impulses primarily related to the ‘Pleasure Principle‘, specifically the response of ‘pleasure Now!’. (Kahn, 2002)

In the tome ‘Dr Jekyl and Mr Hyde’ (1886) by Robert Louis Stevenson , Mr Hyde, today known in psychoanalytical circles as Freud’s ‘id’, begins to compete for dominance of the human psyche against the subject character of Dr Jekyl.

While in the personification of Dr Jekyll, the good Doctor’s secondary mental processes (ie. his rigid conscious logic/reality framework and his delayed gratification response to the ‘Pleasure Principle’ impulses of the ‘id’) dominate.

However, when Dr Jekyl takes his potion, the ‘id’ in the form of Mr Hyde runs rampant! (Stevenson, 1886)

The ‘Secondary Mental Processes’ tend to become manifest in the human psyche during the developmental time frame of age (8) to adult.

In Freud’s ‘ego’, where the idyllic impulses of the ‘Pleasure Principle’ from the ‘id’ are considered, there is a constant battle being refined by the ‘ego’ in consideration of both the ‘Pleasure Principle’ impulse and the ‘Reality Principle‘ input in full light from the stoic, ever over-arching, yet watchful eye of the ‘super-ego’.

One of the paradoxical laws of the psyche that Freud was able to touch upon during his research and during his therapeutic ‘listening’ sessions with his clients was the axiom ‘That which is repressed seeks expression’.

Yet, Freud found that the primary role of the ‘ego’ is, ironically, to keep that which has been repressed, repressed!

Especially if the ‘super-ego’ says ‘Nyet!’.

How can such a repressed item, therefore, be there in the first place, so posits the ‘super-ego’?

To un-repress the now emotionally ‘charged’, though latent thought, the patient must now go against his or her ‘super-ego’s’ recommendation to keep the item repressed!

As well as the ‘ego’s’ normal rebuffing tendency to keep the emotionally ‘charged’, though latent thought in the unconscious, never entering the realm of the peripheral consciousness, or ‘pre-conscious’ per Freud.

As an interesting sidenote to this discussion, Mr Stevenson in fact wrote his tome ‘pre-Freud’ incorporating a ‘magic potion’ as the methodology that Dr Jekyll then imbibed to induce the personification of the traits of Mr Hyde, the future Mr Freud’s image of the ‘id’ run wild!

Short-term therapies-beginning in the late 1950s and accelerating through the 1990s such as medication via ‘Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals’ undermine our ‘God-given’ natural defense against the anxieties of life, namely the wonderful cannabinoids and terpenoids produced within the calyx of the maturing female Cannabis plant.

Still, Freud tells us that ALL defenses against anxiety can potentially lead to one form of mental illness, or another.

For example, the ingestion of phytocannabinoids can lead to psychological dependence via the simple act of rolling a splif (a form of ‘crutch’) if not administered and monitored properly as part of a psycho-dynamic regimen of multiple therapy sessions planned and designed to unblock the source of the underlying malady.

By discovering in the caves of your unconscious, the repression-enigma so wrapped in a riddle, then once unwrapped the allowance of the curing flow of life will help to cleanse the psyche and enable the user (patient) to perform the functions of life at a higher level for longer periods of time between treatments.

The benefits of psycho-dynamic therapy extend well beyond symptom relief as patients actually display continued improvement, as well.

However, the benefits of newer therapies often start to decay after treatment ends.

Maladaptive Defense Mechanisms: Anxiety, be Gone!

Projection Defense

The manipulation of both an internal repression and an external perception is called a ‘projection’.

To prevent anxiety, we first repress an internal impulse from the ‘id’ (ie. hate).

To complete the defense, we then ‘project’ the manifestation of the internal impulse (ie. anger) onto an external being.

Thus, the external being (ie. a co-worker) becomes the object of ‘anger’ and is then mis-perceived to be angry at you.

Other Defense Mechanisms

  • Reaction Formation
  • Identifying With The Aggressor
  • Displacement (Turning Against The Self)

Guilt: The Torment of the ‘Super-ego

Our natural human tendencies to be selfish and aggressive need to be tempered by a off-setting sense of ‘altruism’.

To fear an ‘External Authority’ requires a cultural re-working of our internal ‘super-ego’.

The ‘super-ego’, therefore, must become our omnipresent, over-arching, and threatening super-authority.

Our ‘God’ then, must reside within our ‘super-ego’ to regulate our behavior so civilization does not spin out of control into chaos.

The punishment for not ‘obeying’ your ‘super-ego’ is the internal feelings of ‘guilt’ and ‘remorse’.

Your parents are your first most powerful objects of ‘identification’ per Freud.

When emerging from phase I and phase II of the ‘Oediplex’ resolution, a child etches the experience into his or her ‘super-ego’.

However, unlike an external authority that can only punish you for your manifested external wayward actions, the ‘super-ego’ resides in an area of your brain that is under the sway of the ‘primary processes’ (the ‘unconscious’ abode of dangerous ‘jinn’) and only occasionally ‘blinks’ into your consciousness when there is a requirement, or if you conduct a conscious search of your ‘super-ego’ in an effort to inventory it’s contents.

Because there is no logical separation of impulses in the ‘unconscious’, and there is no distinction made between ‘past’ and ‘present’ and ‘future’ events, there is no difference in the ‘super-ego’, for example, between ‘lust in the heart’ and ‘lust made manifest’.

Both are equally subject to instant ramification, guilt, and remorse by the ‘super-ego’.

In short, you will be tortured from the ‘inside-out’ should your ‘ego’ decide to break one of your ‘super-ego’ rules.

Now, you understand the agony of Darwin.

A religious man, who spent many of his middle years reconciling the events of his younger man adventures, only to finally publish his theory on the ‘Origin of the Species’ and ‘The Tree of Life’ years after he had already turned fifty.

But, this ‘remorse’ that we feel for merely the thought of breaking the slightest rule of the ‘super-ego’ is a form of ‘silent guilt’ that builds, one repetitive thought upon the other.

Yes, we feel it, but where from it originated, we haven’t the slightest clue.

Why so? Because the ‘flogging’ of the ‘ego’ by the ‘super-ego’ for repressing the fully charged impulse that created the latent repression (the ‘enigma’ wrapped in a ‘riddle’) occurs in the ‘unconscious’ where the ‘thought’ of breaking the rules of the ‘super-ego’ originated, and where the ‘punishment’ by the ‘super-ego’ is thus meted out.

The bottom line:

In exchange for living in an interdependent world of persons, and attempting to stabilize our societies, we as individuals have evolutionarily exchanged a bit ‘ego happiness’ for a bit of ‘super-ego guilt’.

Sources: Basic Freud‘, The Austrian (1856 – 1939) by Michael Kahn, Ph.D., (2002) University of California at Santa Cruz, (Ch. 6 ‘Anxiety’, Ch. 7 ‘The Defense Mechanisms’, Ch. 8 ‘Guilt’, Pgs. 106 – 154) Perseus:Basic Books, New York, NY USA, ISBN 0-465-03715-1

And,

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde‘ by Robert Lewis Stevenson (1850 – 1894) as edited by Jerz, Dennis G., (2000)

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

Visit: Cannabuds Grow Store

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Ancient Epigenetic Switch Produces THCA ‘Synthase-Substrate’ Carryforward in Cannabacaea

Bembine Table

Bembine Table

DNA Mileage

Take a billion miles and multiply it by 10 to the 20th power and what do you get?

Try 10 to the 20th power billion miles!

Amazingly, that is how much length of DNA uncoil’d is in one’s human body!

The accuracy of DNA replication in our bodies is 10 to the minus 10th power or (1) mistake in every 10B base pairs of replication.

We have 10 to the 14th power of cells in our body.

Each cell has a fluid capacity or volume of less than 1 nl per cell, yet each cell holds 3 ft of DNA per cell at the double-helix, step-ladder width of about 3.4 angstroms or 3 and 4/10ths ten billionths of a meter (3.4 x 10 to the minus 10th power)

How can we possibly improve on such precise numbers?

Even our best ‘six sigma’ models using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve and control) approach to all ‘decision nodes’ along the pathway pales in comparison to the mileage we get out of our DNA molecules.

To give you a perspective, our standard ‘four sigma’ processes ie) airline baggage handling or interpreting a doctor’s prescription only grant us an accuracy of approximately (99.38%) whereas our vaunted ‘six sigma’ methodology ‘grants’ us 3.4 mistakes per million, or one out of every 294,000 attempts for a surprisingly dull accuracy of approximately (99.99966%) when compared to the ‘divine’ level of accuracy achieved in the daily replication of our DNA at the DNA polymerase copying rate of 1k nucleotides per second.

Mendel’s Classical Rules of Inheritance

Traits that will become expressed in offspring reside at specific gene locations along the DNA strand and are inherited separately per Mendel’s 1st law.

The intersection of allelic loci at the ‘crossing over points’ of homologous chromosomes during the initial gamete-genesis ‘dance of meiosis’ indeed determines what recombined characteristics encoded in the genes of expression of the staminate parent are ultimately transferred to each of the four staminate gametes, of which all four become potentially viable and what characteristics encoded in the genes of expression of the pistillate parent are ultimately transferred to each of the four pistillate gametes, of which only one of the four will become potentially viable.

Thus, any subsequent (F1) trait will have the ‘net’ effect of the intersection between each of the two (P1) specific loci, one from each parent, that is responsible for housing the gene that holds the instruction pattern that codes for the production of certain proteins that ultimately will express the subject trait in any potential offspring.

Epigenetic Imprinting

However, we now know via epigenetic imprinting what Gregor Mendel could not have the foresight of knowing, namely that a chemical ‘switch’ can indeed determine the allelic behavior of a single gene.

How can this be so, you may ask, given Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance?

Let’s use a hypothetical Cannabacaea plant cross as an example to show you how epigenetic chemical ‘switches‘ can alter the type of expression a gene may very well encode for.

Epigenetic Alteration of Gene Expression

We shall focus on the stereo enatomers THCA synthase and CBDA synthase, both of which compete for the same CBG substrate when expressed in a heterozygous, completely co-dominant (Roan) phenotype.

Assume if the co-dominant synthase chemical production gene is inherited ‘switch off’ from the mother, you would have THCA synthase expression in the (F1) generation.

And, conversely, if the co-dominant synthase chemical production gene is inherited ‘switch on’ from the father, you would have CBDA synthase.

Further, depending on which switch has been thrown, the ‘net’ expression of the subject gene can then be transferred to the (F1) generation and beyond into the subsequent (F2) and (F3) generations, et cetera, until such point due to any number of specific future epigenetic factors, the gene becomes switched back to the original alternate pole.

There is nothing to stop this switching back and forth of the gene’s mechanism, if the moments are ripe in the future stream of events to effect a switch.

Application in Human Eukaryote Cells

Since Sept 2001, especially during the 3rd trimester of a pregnancy, we now have evidence of epigenetic imprinting ‘en utero’ in humans.

How such epigenetic stresses may have an effect upon an angiosperm achene while in development within a fertilized ovule is not yet clear.

The period of time for maturation of an angiosperm achene is certainly less than the (9) month maturation process, particularly the final trimester, required to birth a ready and well functioning human baby.

Most certainly any coherent, inherited environmental effect upon a gene that can then be pin-pointed to the moment in time of the initial gamete-genesis ‘dance of meiosis’ that produced the intertwined homologous chromosomes that then became drawn away by the spindle fibers towards a second, subsequent ‘meiosis’ that created the gametes from which reproduction could then occur can not be simply ‘counted out’.

Be careful, therefore, when placing your Cannabacaea plants under stress, particularly during the phase of development called ‘gamete-genesis’.

You just may epigenetically trigger an ‘on or off’ expression of a gene or set of genes that will then be inherited in the subsequent (F1) generation of progeny and beyond with such hermaphroditic consequences as yet not quite fully understood.

Source: Lecture 21: Mendelian Genetics by Prof. Graham C Walker, MIT Biologist,
MIT Intro to Biology ver 7.014

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

Visit: Cannabuds Grow Store

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Mendelian Segregation and Subsequent Recombination of Genes in Cannabacaea


To Arms

Understanding the Parental Tetrads


In the process of ‘gamete-genesis’ one diploid somatic cell splits during the 1st of two separate ‘meiosis’ events to create two daughter cells.

The two daughter cells then divide again during the 2nd ‘meiosis’ event creating four ‘haploid’ gametes.

In the case of the male parent, the four ‘haploid’ gametes become four separate and distinct pollen cells.

In the case of the female parent, one of the four ‘haploid’ gametes becomes one separate and distinct ovum cell (an ovule), and the other three gametes shrivel up and die.

Sister Chromatids


At the beginning (interphase) of the 1st ‘meiosis’ event, both parental strands of chromosomes match as ‘homologous chromosome strands’ and then replicate forming exact duplicate ‘sister chromatids’.

There are now four sets (two each) of parental strands in the nucleus of the original somatic cell where there once was two sets (one each) of parental strands.

The ‘sister chromatids’ then bind at the ‘cross over points’ of each intertwined leg of the opposing complementary ‘sister chromatid’ during ‘metaphase’ forming pairs of ‘homologous chromosomes’ called ‘tetrads’.

At the four ‘cross over points’ of each intertwined leg of the opposing complementary ‘sister chromatid’, parts of chromosomes from each parent are recombined.

The spindle fibers then attach and separate the ‘tetrads’ during ‘anaphase’ creating two separate daughter cells each with a set of matching, yet now recombined chromosomes.

Finally, in order to form the ultimate four ‘haploid’ gamete cells, the two daughter cells undergo yet another ‘meiosis’ during which the four ‘haploid’ cells are created, each one receiving a single set of the newly recombined chromosomes.

All genetic information transmitted from generation to generation is therefore contained in each pollen cell of the staminate male (XY) parent and in the ‘net’ ovule of the pistillate female (XX) parent.

Fertilization unites these two sets of genetic information, then a seed forms, and a new generation is begun.

The ‘First Filial Generation‘ of (F1) siblings will therefore receive a set of recombined genes from each respective parent’s selected reproductive haploid cell (gamete).

Discussion


Collected (F1) hybrid seeds produce on average, larger and more desirable offspring in the subsequent (F2) generation, than what was conceived out of the first (F1) generation.

This condition is called ‘heterosis’ or ‘hybrid vigor‘ and results from the hybrid crossing of two diverse gene pools.

The tendency is for many of the dominant characteristics from both original (P1) parents to be transmitted to the (F2) offspring resulting in the state of particularly large and vigorous plants.

This increased vigor of the (F2) generation due to the recombination of previously dominant genes present in the genotypes of the original (P1) grandparents also often raises the cannabinoid level of the (F2) offspring of the (F1 x F1) cross.

Unfortunately, as a by-product of the di-hybridization cross of the (F1) generation, the possibility does exist that undesirable, usually recessive genes may also form pairs and express their characteristics in the (F2) offspring, as well.

In addition, ‘hybrid vigor’ because of abnormally rapid growth may also mask inferior qualities present in the (F2) offspring that will only show up in subsequent (F2 x F2) = (F3) generational crosses.

Still, it must also be remembered that many useful traits that breed true are also homozygous recessive!

Focus


The goal of all good Cannabacaea breeders is to develop a line of offspring that can be said to be derived from common ancestors via the cross-pollination of two original (P1) grandparent plants that shared a certain genetic trait or traits.

This goal can also be achieved using more modern methods (other than DNA engineering), via the self-pollination of a female plant flowering branch by her own hermaphrodite male staminate branch that will result in the (F1) offspring all exhibiting the same inherited set of traits.

And, if all subsequent (inbred) generations of (F2) progeny will also exhibit the same set of traits, then we can say with confidence that the strain is indeed ‘true-breeding’, or ‘breeds true’ for that particular set of traits.

In this way, a strain can breed true for one or more positive traits while still segregating the alleles of many other characteristics, some of which may not be as desirable.

The ultimate example of a successful Cannabacaea breeding program would be a resultant hybrid strain that breeds true for large, bushy plants with early maturation, large calyx formations containing large sweet-smelling flowers with plenty of open surface to form trichomes upon, and high THCA synthase production along with other selective desirable cannabinoid and terpene levels.

To achieve success when implementing such an ultimate breeding program, the (F2) progeny should be allowed to express themselves and from the (F2) plants, two or more separate lines of development can be started.

In this case, one acceptable (F2) male staminate plant is selected along with two (F2) female pistillate plants.

Subsequent crosses between the male pollen parent and the two female seed parents results in two lines of inheritance with slightly differing genetics, but each expressing the same ‘boat load’ of desired characteristics.

Further independent selection and inbreeding of the best plants for several generations will establish two strains which are true-breeding for all the originally selected traits.

It is important to remember, that the successful breeder can never allow the two separate lines to interbreed with each other until such time each line is stabilized for all five of the desired characteristics.

Further, the timing of such a cross should also coincide with the points of time in the future where the ‘hybrid vigor’ of each line starts to wane.

When two inbred strains are crossed, the (F1) hybrids tend to be less variable than when two hybrid strains are crossed initially.

This phenomenon occurs as a result of the limiting of the diversity of the gene pools from which the two strains have been hybridized through previous inbreeding.

This means that all of the offspring from any set of the parents in the strain will give rise to seedlings which all exhibit the selected traits.

As expected, however, successive inbreeding may also result in a steady decline in the vigor of the strain.

When lack of vigor interferes with selecting subsequent phenotypes for size and hardiness, the two separately selected strains can then be interbred and reintroduced to recombine non-selected genes and to restore ‘hybrid vigor’.

Thus, the resultant cross reinvigorates the new final line of true breeding parents from which effective seed can then be harvested for future plantings.

This cross will probably not interfere with breeding for the selected traits unless two different gene systems control the same trait in the two separate lines, and this event is highly unlikely.

Conjecture


If both original (P1) parents, for example, were indeed ‘heterozygous’ for the trait of ‘Cannabinoid Expression’, then you would expect to see different phenotypes emerge at the (F1) level among the siblings, and still others in the (F2) offspring of any (F1 x F1) inbred cross.

Hypothesis


One such pair of symbiotic genes that code for ‘Cannabinoid Expression’ is received by each (F1) sibling and can not incompletely alter either expression for domiant THC synthase (TT) or for dominant CBD synthase (CC) because both expressions are co-dominant allelic ie) regulated by two different ‘co-dominant’ alleles at a locus or loci that are responsible for the different cannabinoid expressions within the Cannabacaea plant.

This is not a simple stating of the masking of one dominant trait over a competing recessive trait that will result in a single double recessive offspring to appear out of three distinct (F1) sibling possibilities.

Nor, is this an example of ‘incomplete dominance’ where sets of heterozygous alleles blend to form an intermediate, yet distinct expression ie) Pink flowers.

No, this conjecture is rather based on the original different heterozygous genotypes of the co-dominant (P1) parents that will express themselves in a ratio of 1:2:1 where one of the four (F1) siblings will express homozygous dominant THC synthase (TT), two of the four (F1) siblings will express heterozygous (Roan) 50%/50% mixes of both co-dominant THC synthase AND CBD synthase expressions (TC) and (CT), and one of the four (F1) siblings will express homozygous dominant CBD synthase (CC), as shown in the following ‘Punnett Square’:


Problem: Given one trait linked by a pair of distant yet co-dominant autosomal genes, namely the dominant CBD synthase (CC) expression allele and the dominant THC synthase (TT) expression allele, create a ‘Punnett Square’ showing the (P1) parents and their expected (F1) offspring.

Assume: The mother gamete of the progeny is heterozygous for both dominant CBD synthase expression and THC synthase expression (TC) and the father gamete of the progeny is also heterozygous for both dominant CBD synthase expression and THC synthase expression (TC).


Punnett Sq
F1  T  C
T TT TC
C CT CC

Results: The resultant (F1) progeny as shown in the above ‘Punnett Square’ will have a chance of (1:4) or 25% of being homozygous dominant (TT) for THC synthase expression.

Two offspring will have a chance of (2:4) = (1:2) or 50% of being heterozygous for both dominant CBD synthase and THC synthase expressions (TC).

And, one sibling will also have a chance of (1:4) or 25% of being homozygous dominant (CC) for CBD synthase expression.

If on the other hand, one of the parents is ‘homozygous’ dominant for either THC synthase (TT) expression or CBD synthase (CC) expression, then the resultant ratio of (F1) sibling phenotypes will appear as 2:2:0 or 0:2:2, as shown in the following two ‘Punnett Square’:


Punnett Sq
F1  T  C
T TT TC
T TT TC

Punnett Sq
F1  T  C
C CT CC
C CT CC

If both parents are ‘homozygous’ for a different dominant, then the result due to segregation and subsequent recombination will be no ‘homozygous’ (F1) phenotypes or a ratio of 0:4:0, as follows:


Punnett Sq
F1  T  T
C CT CT
C CT CT

Only if both parents are ‘homozygous’ for the same genotype will the F1 progeny all be true breeding for the trait as shown by the ratios 4:0:0 or 0:0:4, as follows:


Punnett Sq
F1  T  T
T TT TT
T TT TT

Punnett Sq
F1  C  C
C CC CC
C CC CC

Because of the above ratios, when you cross a THC synthase dominant ‘sativa’ or ‘indica’ with a CBD synthase dominant ‘hemp’ plant, you will break the ‘homozygosity’ of the two co-dominant allelic expressions thus introducing ‘heterozygosity’ into the downsteam subsequent generations of F1 (0:4:0) progeny, F2 (1:2:1) progeny and beyond through segregation and recombination.

Conclusion


Unfortunately, because of the co-dominant expression of either THC synthase or CBD synthase, attempting to stabilize a trait that is partially THC synthase and partially CBD synthase cannot result in true breeding offspring through subsequent generations.

Therefore, When such a balanced ‘heterozygous’ plant is identified, it can only be cloned for bud production.

Reason


Why? Because no reliable seed can be produced to pass on such a balanced “heterozygous’ trait with certainty from one generation to the next because the co-dominant expression is not incomplete. That is to say, the expression does not ‘blend’, but rather, the expression ‘segregates’.

In the process of ‘synthase-genesis’, a common substrate (CBG) will be competed upon, thus giving rise to only 50%/50% (roan) outcomes of THCA synthase and CBDA synthase.

Hemizygous Recessiveness in Sex Based Genes


The production of each of the aromatic compounds found in Cannabis may be influenced by many unrelated or related genes located at any number of loci throughout the contributing (9) autosomal chromosomes of each inherited (1n) gamete.

Remember, too, that there are also two additional sex chromosomes (X) and (Y) in Cannabis, as well, bringing the total of inherited chromosomes per (1n) gamete to (10).

Assumption: One gene located at one loci on the sex ‘X’ chromosome can express either of two terpenes.

That is to say, the gene has two alleles, one that can produce a dominant expression, and one that can produce a recessive expression.

As in the autosomes, a dominant gene received from one gamete (parent) can mask a recessive gene characteristic received from the other gamete (parent).

Problem: Given one linked trait spread over two sex chromosomes, for example, the dominant terpene Pinene (P) and the recessive terpene Limonene (m), create a ‘Punnett Square’ showing the (P1) parents and their expected (F1) offspring.

Assume: The mother gamete of the progeny is heterozygous dominant for Pinene (XP,Xm) and the father gamete of the progeny is hemizygous dominant for Pinene (XP,Y).


Punnett Sq
F1  XP  Y
XP XP,XP XP,Y
Xm Xm,XP Xm,Y

Results: The resultant (F1) progeny as shown in the above ‘Punnett Square’ will have a chance of (2:4) = (1:2) or 50% of first being a female (XX) and secondly a chance of (1:2) or 50% of being either homozygous dominant (PP) for Pinene or heterozygous dominant (Pm) for Pinene.

The remaining two offspring will have a chance of (2:4) = (1:2) or 50% of first being a male (XY) and secondly a chance of (1:2) or 50% of being either hemizygous dominant (P) for Pinene or hemizygous recessive (m) for Limonene.

Therefore, the probability of any one offspring (F1) being hemizygous recessive (m) for Limonene as a result of the pairing of the two parental gametes will be the product of the two chances (2:4) x (1:2) = (2:8) = (1:4) or 25%, and that offspring (F1) will be a male.

Now, after isolating the hemizygous recessive (Xm,Y) male (F1) and then pairing that male with it’s heterozygous dominant (Xm,XP) female (F1) sibling, what phenotypes do you get in the (F2) generation?


Punnett Sq
F2  Xm  Y
Xm Xm,Xm Xm,Y
XP XP,Xm XP,Y

The resultant (F2) grandchildren as shown in the above ‘Punnett Square’ will all have the chance of (2:4) of first being a female (XX) and secondly a chance of (1:2) or 50% of being homozygous recessive (mm) for Limonene or heterozygous dominant (Pm) for Pinene.

The remaining two offspring will have the chance chance of (2:4) of first being a male (XY) and secondly a chance of (1:2) or 50% of being hemizygous recessive (m) for Limonene or hemizygous dominant (P) for Pinene.

Therefore, the probability of any one (F2) offspring resulting from the pairing of the two (F1) gametes of being homozygous recessive (mm) for Limonene will be the product of the two chances (2:4) x (1:2) = (2:8) = (1:4) or 25%, and that offspring will be a female.

Presto! You have found the perfect mother plant for cloning forward plants that will express the terpene Limonene!

But, suppose you wish to ‘fix’ this trait in seed form?

Well, you could induce a male arm to grow from your perfect mother plant, and then self the pollen from that male arm onto the flowers of your perfect mother.

This is called ‘selfing’.

The seed produced will only, therefore, be female (feminized), and the resultant (F1) females will all express the terpene Limonene in sweet lemony homozygous recessive fashion.

Congratulations, you have successfully produced commercially viable ‘feminized’ hybrid seed as shown in the following ‘Punnett Square’.


Punnett Sq
F3  Xm  Xm
Xm Xm,Xm Xm,Xm
Xm Xm,Xm Xm,Xm

Now, after islolating the homozygous recessive (F2) female (Xm,Xm) and then pairing that female with it’s hemizygous recessive (F2) male (Xm,Y) sibling, what phenotypes do you get in the (F3) generation?


Punnett Sq
F3  Xm  Y
Xm Xm,Xm Xm,Y
Xm Xm,Xm Xm,Y

The resultant (F3) great-grandchildren as shown in the above ‘Punnett Square’ will have equal chances (2:4) of first being a female (XX) and secondly a chance of (2:2) or 100% of being homozygous recessive (mm) for Limonene.

The remaining two offspring will also have equal chances (2:4) of first being a male (XY) and secondly a chance of (2:2) or 100% of being hemizygous recessive (m) for Limonene.

Therefore, the probability of any one (F3) offspring from the pairing of the two (F2) gametes of being homozygous recessive (mm) for Limonene will be the product of the two chances (2:4) x (2:2) = (4:8) = (2:4) = (1:2) or 50%, and that offspring will be a female.

And, the probability of any one (F3) offspring from the pairing of the two (F2) gametes of being hemizygous recessive (m) for Limonene will be the product of the two chances (2:4) x (2:2) = (4:8) = (2:4) = (1:2) or 50%, and that offspring will be a male.

The seed produced will therefore be 50% female and 50% male, and all resultant (F4) plants will express the terpene Limonene.

Congratulations, you have successfully produced commercially viable ‘regular’ hybrid seed.

Mendel’s Law II: The Law of Independent Assortment


Use a ’16’ cage ‘Punnett Square’ to show the offspring phenotype potentials from two separate and distinct genotypic traits.

For example, the leaf of a plant can either be ‘sativa’ long, finger’d palmetto or ‘indica’ web, finger’d palmetto.

For the purposes of this part of the discussion, let us hypothesize that the ‘sativa’ long, finger’d palmetto leaf is the dominant form of allele (V) for the gene that expresses leaf shape at a single loci on a specific singular autosome and the ‘indica’ web, finger’d palmetto leaf is the recessive form of allele(w) for the gene that expresses leaf shape at a single loci on a specific singular autosome.

Closely affiliated with the leaf, is the branching scheme that each plant employs.

For the purposes of this discussion, let us hypothesize that the ‘sativa’ long internodal length is the dominant form of allele (I) for the gene that expresses the branching scheme at a single loci on a specific singular autosome and the ‘indica’ short internodal length is the recessive form of allele (i) for the gene that expresses the branching scheme at a single loci on a specific singular autosome.

Further assume that both parents are heterozygous hybrids for both traits.

That is to say each parent is both (Vw) and (Ii), carrying both allelic forms of the respective genes with the dominant allele masking the expression of the recessive allele.


Punnett Sq
F1  VI  Vi  wI  wi
VI VV,II VV,Ii Vw,II Vw,Ii
Vi VV,iI VV,ii Vw,iI Vw,ii
wI wV,II wV,Ii ww,II ww,Ii
wi wV,iI wV,ii ww,iI ww,ii

The F1 offspring will follow a pattern of 9:3:3:1 where only one of the (16) offspring will be homozygous recessive for both traits inheriting a pair of each of the two recessive alleles namely, the ‘indica’ web, finger’d palmetto leaf (ww) and the ‘indica’ short internodal length (ii).

Remember, to express a recessive treat in a phenotype, there must be two sets of the same allele present in the genotype.

The remaining phenotypes will show ‘9’ plants that are dominant in both traits (with only one of the nine being homozygous dominant for both traits) and ‘3’ and ‘3’ that are either dominant in one trait while being recessive in the other, or recessive in one trait while being dominant in the other.

The Drying and Curing of Cannabacaea


After the initial two to three week drying period, cannabinoid acids begin to decarboxylate into the psychoactive cannabinoids and terpenes isomerize to create new polyterpenes with tastes and aromas different from fresh floral clusters.

The rate and extent to which Cannabacaea dries is generally determined by the way it is dried, but, all conditions being the same, some strains dry much more rapidly and completely than others.

It is assumed that resin has a role in preventing desiccation and high resin content might retard drying.

However, it is a misconception that resin is secreted to coat and seal the surface of the calyx(s) and leaves.

Resin is secreted by glandular trichomes, but they are trapped under a cuticle layer surrounding the head cells of the trichome holding the resin away from the surface of the leaves.

There it would rarely if ever have a chance to seal the surface of the epidermal layer and prevent the transpiration of water.

It seems that an alternate reason must be found for the great variations in rate and extent of drying.

Strains may be bred that dry and cure rapidly to save valuable time.

List of General Cannabacaea Traits in Which Variation Can Occur


  • Sex
  • Size
  • Yield
  • Vigor
  • Adaptability
  • Hardiness
  • Disease Resistance
  • Pest Resistance
  • Maturation Time Period
  • Root Production
  • Branching (internodal) length
  • Sex of the plant
  • Seedling variation
  • Leaf variation
  • Fiber Variation

Sex of the Cannabacaea Plant


Attempts to breed offspring of only one sexual type have led to more misunderstanding than any other facet of Cannabacaea genetics.

The discoveries of McPhee (1925) and Schaffner (1928) showed that pure sexual type and hermaphrodite conditions are inherited and that the percentage of sexual types could be altered by crossing with certain hermaphrodites.

Since then it has generally been assumed by researchers and breeders that a cross between ANY unselected hermaphrodite plant and a pistillate seed-parent would result in a population of all pistillate offspring.

However, in the real world, this is not the case.

In most cases, the offspring of hermaphrodite parents tend toward hermaphrodism, which is largely unfavorable for the production of Cannabacaea, other than for fiber hemp.

This is not to say that there is no tendency for hermaphrodite crosses to alter sex ratios in the offspring.

The accidental release of some pollen from predominantly pistillate hermaphrodites, along with the complete eradication of nearly every staminate and staminate hermaphrodite plant may have led to a shift in the sexual ratio in domestic populations of (sp.) ‘sin semilla’ or ‘without seed’ drug Cannabacaea.

It is commonly observed that these strains tend toward 60% to 80% pistillate plants and a few pistillate hermaphrodites are not uncommon in these populations.

However, a cross can be made which will produce nearly all pistillate or staminate individuals.

If the proper pistillate hermaphrodite plant is selected as the pollen-parent and a pure pistillate plant is selected as the seed-parent, it is therefore possible to produce an (F1), and subsequent (F2) generations, of nearly all pistillate offspring.

The proper pistillate hermaphrodite pollen-parent is one which has been grown as a pure pistillate plant and at the end of the season, or under artificial environmental stress, the plant begins to develop a very few staminate flowers.

If the pollen from these few staminate flowers forming on a pistillate plant are then applied to a pure pistillate seed parent, the resulting (F1) generation should be almost all pistillate with only a few pistillate hermaphrodites.

This will also be the case if the selected pistillate hermaphrodite pollen source is self’d and bears its own seeds.

Remember that a self’d hermaphrodite gives rise to more hermaphrodites, but a self’d pistillate plant that has given rise to a limited number of staminate flowers in response to environmental stresses should give rise to nearly all pistillate offspring.

The (F1) offspring may have a slight tendency to produce a few staminate flowers under further environmental stresses and these offspring can also be used to produce viable seed.

A monoecious strain produces 95+% plants with many pistillate and a few staminate flowers, but a dioecious strain produces 95+% pure pistillate or 95+% pure staminate plants.

A plant from a dioecious strain with a few inter-sexual flowers is a pistillate or staminate hermaphrodite.

Therefore, the difference between monoecism and hermaphrodism is one of degree, determined by the underlying geneotype of the plant and the epigenetic environment to which the plant is exposed.

Crosses may also be performed to produce nearly all staminate offspring, if desired.

This feat can be accomplished by crossing a pure staminate plant with a staminate plant that has produced a few pistillate flowers due to environmental stress, or by ‘self-ing’ the latter plant.

It is readily apparent that in the wild this is not a likely possibility.

Very few staminate plants live long enough to produce pistillate flowers, and when this does happen the number of seeds produced is limited to the few pistillate flowers that do occur.

In the case of a pistillate hermaphrodite, it may produce only a few staminate flowers, but each of these may produce thousands of pollen grains, any one of which may fertilize one of the plentiful pistillate flowers, producing a seed.

This is another reason why natural Cannabacaea populations tend toward predominantly pistillate and pistillate hermaphrodite plants.

Artificial hermaphrodites can also be produced by hormone sprays, mutilation, and altered light cycles.

These methods should prove most useful for fixing traits and sexual type.

Drug strains can be selected for strong dioecious tendencies.

Some breeders select strains with a sex ratio more nearly approaching one, than a strain with a high pistillate sex ratio.

They believe this reduces the chances of pistillate plants turning hermaphrodite later in the season.

Size of Cannabacaea


The size of an individual Cannabacaea plant is determined by environmental factors such as room for root and shoot growth, adequate light and nutrients, and proper irrigation.

These environmental factors influence the phenotypic image of genotype, but the genotype of the individual is responsible for overall variations in gross morphology, including size.

Grown under the same conditions, particularly large and small individuals are easily spotted and selected.

Many dwarf Cannabacaea plants have been reported and dwarfism may be subject to genetic control, as is dwarfism in many higher plants, such as dwarf corn and dwarf citrus.

Cannabacea parents selected for large size tend to produce offspring of a larger average size each year.

Indeed, hybrid crosses between tall plant strains such as Cannabis sativa and short plant strains such as Cannabis ruderalis will normally yield (F1) offspring of intermediate height (Beutler and der Marderosian, 1978).

Heterosis commonly known as hybrid vigor will influence the size of future offspring much more than any other genetic factor.

The increased size of hybrid offspring is often amazing and accounts for much of the success of Cannabacaea cultivators in raising large plants.

It is not known whether there is a set of related or unrelated gene(s) for “gigantism” in Cannabacaea or whether polyploid individuals really yield more than diploid (2n) individuals due to the increased chromosome count.

Tetraploids tend to be taller and their water requirements are often higher than diploid (2n) individuals.

Yield of Cannabacaea


Yield is determined by the overall production of fiber, seed, or resin and selective breeding can be used to increase the yield of any one of these products.

However, several of these traits may be closely related, and it may be impossible to breed for one without the other popping up.

This phenomenon of closely related traits is called genetic linkage.

Inbreeding of a pure strain increases yield only if high yield parents are selected.

High yield plants, staminate or pistillate, are not finally selected until the plants are dried and manicured.

Because of this, many of the most vigorous plants are crossed and seeds selected after harvest when the yield can be measured.

Basic Vigor of Cannabacaea


Discernable large size is often also a sign of healthy vigorous growth.

A plant that begins to grow immediately will usually reach a larger size and produce a higher yield in a shorter growing season than a sluggish, slow-growing plant.

(P1) parents are always selected for rich green foliage and rapid, responsive growth.

This will ensure that gene(s) for certain weaknesses in overall growth and development are bred out of the population while gene(s) for strength and vigor remain.

Adaptability of Cannabacaea


It is important for a plant with as wide of a global distribution as Cannabacaea to be adaptable to many different environmental conditions.

Indeed, Cannabacaea is one of the most genotypically diverse and phenotypically plastic plants on earth.

As a result of it’s diversity, the plant has adapted to environmental conditions ranging from equatorial to temperate climates.

Domestic agricultural circumstances also dictate that Cannabacaea be grown under a great variety of conditions.

Plants to be selected for adaptability are cloned and grown in several locations.

The parental stocks with the highest survival percentages can be selected as prospective parents for an adaptable strain.

Adaptability is really just another term for hardiness under varying growth conditions.

Hardiness of Cannabacaea


The hardiness of a plant is related to the overall resistance characteristics of the plant environmental threats such as heat and frost, and drought and overwatering.

Plants with a particular resistance appear when adverse conditions lead to the death of the rest of a large population.

Under stress from the adverse invader, the surviving few members of the population might carry inheritable resistance to the environmental factor that previously destroyed the majority of the population.

Breeding these survivors and subjecting their offspring to continuing stress conditions allows the astute breeder to carefully select for several generations.

This effort should result in a pure-breeding strain with increased resistance to drought, frost, or excessive heat, for example.

Disease and Pest Resistance of Cannabacaea


In much the same way as for hardiness, a strain may be bred for resistance to a certain disease, such as damping-off fungus.

If flats of seedlings are infected by damping-off disease and nearly all of them die, the remaining few will have some resistance to
damping-off fungus.

If this resistance is inheritable, it can be passed on to subsequent generations by crossing these surviving plants.

Subsequent crossing, tested by inoculating flats of seedling offspring with damping-off fungus, should yield a more resistant strain.

Resistance to pest attack works in much the same way.

It is common to find stands of Cannabacaea where one or a few plants are infested with insects while adjacent plants are untouched.

Cannabinoid and terpene combinations produce resins that are most probably responsible for repelling insect attacks, and levels of these combinations do vary from plant to plant.

Cannabacaea has evolved defenses against insect attack in the form of resin-secreting glandular trichomes, which cover the reproductive and associated vegetative structures of mature plants.

Most insects, finding the resin disagreeable, rarely attack mature Cannabacaea flowers.

Insects, however, may also strip the outer leaves of the same plant because these develop fewer glandular trichomes and protective resins than the flowers.

It has also been observed in the early days of hemp cultivation in America, that fields of hemp grown next to fields of corn do invite corn borers to attempt to lodge inside the lower stalks of hemp plants.

Non-glandular cannabinoids and other compounds produced within the leaf and stem tissues possibly also inhibit insect attack somewhat and may account for the varying resistance of seedlings and vegetative juvenile plants to pest infestation.

With the popularity of greenhouse Cannabacaea cultivation, a strain with increased resistance to mold, mite, aphid and/or white fly infestation would be a welcome addition to the Cannabacaea family.

Problems such as these are so often severe that greenhouse cultivators will destroy any plants which have been attacked on the spot!

Molds in particular reproduce by wind-borne spores, so negligence in this area of prevention can rapidly lead to epidemic disaster.

Selection and breeding of the least infected plants should result in strains with increased resistance.

Maturation of Cannabacea


Control of the maturation process in Cannabacaea is very important no matter what the reason for growing Cannabacaea may be.

If Cannabacaea is to be grown for fiber it is important that the maximum fiber content of the crop be reached early and that all of the individuals in the crop mature at the same time to facilitate commercial harvesting.

Seed production requires the even maturation of both pollen and seed parents to ensure even setting and maturation of seeds.

An uneven maturation of seeds would mean that some seeds drop prematurely and will be lost while others are still ripening.

An understanding of floral maturation is the key to the production of high quality drug Cannabacaea.

Changes in gross morphology are accompanied by changes in cannabinoid and terpene production, and serve as visual keys to determining the ripeness, and therefore the proper time to harvest Cannabacaea flowers.

A Cannabacaea plant may mature either early or late, be fast or slow to flower, and ripen either evenly or sequentially.

Breeding for early or late maturation is certainly a reality in today’s global seed market.

It is also possible to breed for fast or slow flowering, and even, or sequential ripening.

In general, crosses between early-maturing plants give rise to early maturing offspring, and crosses between late maturing plants give rise to late maturing offspring, and crosses between late and early maturing plants give rise to offspring of intermediate maturation.

This seems to indicate that maturation of Cannabacaea is not controlled by the simple dominance and recessiveness of one gene but probably results from a form of incomplete dominance, and a combination of genes for separate aspects of maturation.

For instance, in the plant kingdom, we know that Sorghum maturation is controlled by four separate genes.

The sum of these genes produces a certain ‘blend’ or phenotype for maturation.

Although breeders do not know the action of each specific gene, they still can breed for the total of these traits and achieve results more nearly approaching the goal of timely maturation than what was expressed in the selected parental strains.

Root Production of the Cannabis Plant


The size and shape of Cannabacaea root systems vary greatly.

Although every embryo sends out a taproot from which lateral roots grow, the individual growth pattern and final size and shape of the roots vary considerably.

Some plants send out a deep taproot, up to 1 meter (39 inches) long, which helps support the plant against winds and rain.

Most Cannabacaea plants, however, produce a poor taproot which rarely extends more than 30 centimeters (1 foot).

Lateral growth is responsible for most of the roots in Cannabacaea plants.

These fine lateral roots offer the plant additional support, but their primary function is to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.

A large root system will be able to feed and support a large plant.

Most lateral roots grow near the surface of the soil where there is more water, more oxygen, and more available nutrients.

Breeding for root size and shape may prove beneficial for the production of large rain and/or wind resistant strains.

Often Cannabacaea plants, even very large ones, have very small and sensitive root systems.

Recently, certain alkaloids have been discovered in the roots of Cannabacaea that might have some medicinal value, as well.

If this proves the case, Cannabacaea may be cultivated and bred for high alkaloid levels in the roots to be used in the commercial production of pharmaceuticals.

As with many traits, it is difficult to make selections for root types until the parents are harvested.

Because of this many crosses are made early and seeds selected later.

Internodal Branching


The branching pattern of a Cannabacaea plant is determined by the frequency of the nodes along each branch and the extent of branching at each node.

For examples, consider a tall, thin plant with slender limbs made up of long internodes and nodes with little branching ie) certain Mexican strains.

Compare this with a stout and densely branched plant, with limbs of short internodes and highly branched nodes ie) certain Hindi Kush strains.

Different branching patterns are preferred for the different agricultural applications of fiber, flower, or resin production.

Tall, thin plants with long internodes and no branching are best adapted to fiber production.

A short, broad plant with short inter-nodal lengths and well developed branching is best adapted to floral production.

Branching structure is selected that will tolerate heavy rains and high winds without breaking.

This is quite advantageous to outdoor growers in temperate zones with short seasons.

Commercially, some Mexican breeders, for example, will select tall, limber plants that are able to bend in the wind.

Others will select short, stiff plants (Hindi Kush) which resist the weight of water without bending.

Seedling Traits


Seedling traits can be very useful in the efficient and purposeful selection of future parental stock.

If accurate selection can be exercised on small seedlings, much larger populations can be grown for initial selection, as less space is required to raise small seedlings than mature plants.

Whorled phyllotaxy and resistance to damping-off are two traits that may be selected just after the emergence of the seedling from the embryo in the soil.

Early selection for vigor, hardiness, resistance, and general growth form may be made when the seedlings are about (30) to (90) centimeters tall.

Leaf type, height, and branching are other criteria for early selection.

These early-selected plants cannot be bred until they mature, but selection is the primary and most important step in plant improvement.

Whorled phyllotaxy is associated with subsequent anomalies in the growth cycle ie) multiple leaflets and flattened or clubbed stems.

Also, most whorled plants are staminate and whorled phyllotaxy may be sex-linked.

Leaf Traits


Leaf traits vary greatly from strain to strain.

In addition to these regularly occurring variations in leaves, there are a number of mutations and possible traits in leaf shape.

It may turn out that leaf shape is correlated with other traits in Cannabacaea.

Broad leaflets might be associated with a low calyx-to-leaf ratio and narrow leaflets might be associated with a high calyx-to-leaf ratio.

If this is the case, early selection of seedlings by leaflet shape could determine the character of the flowering clusters at harvest.

Both compound and webbed leaf variations seem to be hereditary, as are other general leaf characteristics such as color and shade variation.

A breeder may wish to develop a unique leaf shape for an ornamental strain or increase the leaf yield for pulp production.

For example, a (F1) Colombian plant has been reported in which two leaves on the same plant, at the time of flowering, developed floral clusters of between (5) and (10) pistillate yet late calyx at the intersection of the leaflet array and the petiole attachment, on the adaxial (top) side of the leaf.

One of these clusters developed a partial staminate flower, but fertilization was unsuccessful.

It is unknown if this mutation is hereditary.

And, from Afghanistan, another example has been observed with several small floral clusters along the petioles of many of the large primary leaves.

Fiber Traits


More advanced breeding has occurred in fiber strains than any other type of Cannabacaea.

Over the years many strains have been developed with improved maturation, increased fiber content, and improved fiber quality with regards to length, strength, and suppleness.

Extensive breeding programs have been carried on in France, Italy, Russia, and the United States to develop better varieties of fiber Cannabacaea.

Tall limbless strains that are monoecious are most desirable.

Monoeciousness is favored, because in dioecious populations the staminate plants will mature first and the fibers will become brittle before the pistillate plants are ready for harvest.

The fiber strains of Europe are divided into northern and southern varieties.

The latter require higher temperatures and a longer vegetative period, and as a result grow taller and yield more fiber.

Floral Traits


Many individual traits determine the floral characteristics of Cannabacaea.

Pistillate flowering clusters are the seed-producing organs of the Cannabacaea plant and when not fertilized (‘sin semilla’) pistillate flowering clusters remain alive and viable, and can and do go through many changes that cannot be compared to staminate plants.

This section, therefore, will focus on the individual traits of pistillate (female) floral clusters with occasional comments about similar traits in staminate (male) floral clusters.

List of Cannabacaea Flower Characteristics


  • Floral Shape
  • Floral Form
  • Floral Color
  • Calyx Size
  • Calyx Color
  • Cannabinoid Types
  • Cannabinoid Levels
  • Cannabinoid Persistence
  • Terpene Types
  • Terpene Levels
  • Terpene Persistence
  • Resin Quantity
  • Resin Quality
  • Resin Tenacity
  • Trichome Type
  • Trichome Structure
  • Taste of Buds
  • Aroma of Buds
  • Drying Rate of Buds
  • Curing Rate of Buds
  • Ease of Manicuring
  • Seed Maturation

Flowering


Once a plant matures and begins to bear flowers it may reach peak floral production in a few weeks, or the floral clusters may continue to grow and develop for several months.

The rate at which a strain flowers is independent of the rate at which it matures, so a plant may wait until late in the season to flower and then grow extensive, mature floral clusters in only a few weeks.

Flower Ripening


Ripening of Cannabacaea flowers is the final step in their maturation process.

Floral clusters will usually mature and ripen in rapid succession, but sometimes large floral clusters will form and only after a period of apparent hesitation will the flowers begin to produce resin and ripen.

Once ripening starts it usually spreads over the entire plant, but some strains, such as those from Thailand, are known to ripen a few floral clusters at a time over several months.

Some fruit trees are similarly ever-bearing with a year-long season of production.

Possibly Cannabacaea strains could be bred that are true ever-bearing perennials that continue to flower and mature consistently all year long.

The Shape of The Floral Clusters


The basic shape of a floral cluster is determined by the inter-nodal lengths along the main floral axis and within individual floral clusters.

Dense, long clusters result when internodes are short along the long floral axis, and when there are short internodes within the individual compact floral clusters ie) Hindi Kush.

On the other hand, light n airy clusters result when a plant forms a stretched floral axis along with a long internode between the well-branched individual floral clusters ie) most Thai strains.

The shape of a floral cluster is also determined by the general growth habit of the plant.

Among domesticated Cannabacaea phenotypes, it becomes obvious that floral clusters from a ‘creeper’ sort of phenotype will curve upwards at the end, and floral clusters from this huge upright phenotype will have long, straight floral clusters of various shapes.

Early in the winter, many strains begin to stretch and cease calyx production in preparation for rejuvenation and subsequent vegetative growth in the spring.

Staminate plants also exhibit variation in floral clusters.

Some plants have tight clusters of staminate calyx resembling inverted grapes ie) Hindi Kush males and other strains have long, hanging groups of flowers on long, exposed, leafless branches ie) most Thai strains.

The Form of The Floral Cluster

The form of a floral cluster is determined by the numbers and relative proportions of calyx(s) and flowers.

A leafy floral cluster might be 70% leaves and have a calyx-to-leaf ratio of 1:4.

It is obvious that strains with a high calyx-to-leaf ratio are more adapted to calyx production, and therefore, to resin production.

This factor could be advantageous in characterizing plants as future parents of drug strains.

At this point it must be noted that pistillate floral clusters are made up of a number of distinct parts.

They include stems, occasional seeds, calyx(s), inner leaves subtending calyx pairs (small, resinous, 1-3 leaflets), and outer leaves subtending entire floral clusters (larger, little resin, 3-11 leaflets).

The ratios (by dry weight) of these various portions vary by strain, degree of pollination, and maturity of the floral clusters. Maturation is a reaction to environmental change, and the degree of maturity reached is subject to climatic limits as well as breeder’s preference.

Because of this interplay between environment and genetics in the control of floral form it is often difficult to breed Cannabacea for floral characteristics. A thorough knowledge of the way a strain matures is important in separating possible inherited traits of floral clusters from acquired traits.

Chapter IV, Maturation and Harvesting of Cannabacea, delves into the secrets and theories of maturation.

For now, we will assume that the following traits are described from fully mature floral clusters (peak floral stage) before any decline.

Calyx Size


Mature calyx(s) range in size from 2 to 12 millimeters (1/16 to 3/8 inch) in length.

Calyx size is largely dependent upon age and maturity.

Calyx size of a floral cluster is best expressed as the average length of the mature viable calyx.

Calyx are still considered viable if both pistils appear fresh and have not begun to curl or change colors.

At this time, the calyx is relatively straight and has not begun to swell with resin and change shape as it will when the pistils die.

It is generally agreed that the production of large calyx(s) is often as important in deter mining the psychoactivity of a strain as the quantity of calyx(s) produced.

Hindu Kush, Thai, and Mexican strains are some of the most psychoactive strains, and they are often characterized by large calyx(s) and seeds.

Calyx size appears to be an inherited trait in Cannabacea. Completely acclimatized hybrid strains usually have many rather small calyx(s), while imported strains with large calyx(s) retain that size when inbred.

Initial selection of large seeds increases the chance that offspring will be of the large- calyx variety.

Aberrant calyx development occasionally results in double or fused calyx(s), both of which may set seed.

This phenomenon is most pronounced in strains from Thailand and India.

The Color of Cannabacaea Floral Clusters

The perception and interpretation of color in Cannabacaea floral clusters is heavily influenced by the imagination of the cultivator or breeder.

A gold strain does not appear metallic any more than a red strain resembles a fire engine.

Cannabacaea floral clusters are basically green, but changes may take place later in the fall season that alter the color of the floral clusters to include various shades of purple.

The intense green of chlorophyll usually masks the color of the accessory pigments.

The molecules of chlorophyll tend to break down late in the season and anthocyanin pigments also contained in the tissues are unmasked and allowed to show through.

Purple, resulting from anthocyanin accumulation, is the most common color in living Cannabacaea, other than green.

This color modification is usually triggered by seasonal change, much as the leaves of many deciduous trees change color in the fall.

This does not mean, however, that expression of color is controlled by environment alone and is not an inheritable trait.

For purple color to develop upon maturation, a strain must have the genetically controlled metabolic potential to produce anthocyanin pigments coupled with a responsiveness to environmental change such that anthocyanin pigments are unmasked and become visible.

This also means that a strain could have the gene(s) for expression of purple color but the color might never be expressed if the environmental conditions did not trigger anthocyanin pigmentation or chlorophyll breakdown.

Colombian and Hindu Kush strains often develop purple coloration year after year when subjected to low night temperatures during maturation.

Carotenoid pigments are largely responsible for the yellow, orange, red, and brown colors of Cannabacaea.

They also begin to show in the leaves and calyx(s) of certain strains as the masking green chlorophyll color fades upon maturation.

Gold strains are those which tend to reveal underlying yellow and orange pigments as they mature.

Red strains are usually closer to reddish brown in color, although certain carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments are nearly red and localized streaks of these colors occasionally appear in the petioles of very old floral clusters.

Red color in pressed, imported tops is often a result of masses of reddish brown dried pistils ie) saffron.

Several different portions of floral cluster anatomy may change colors, and it is possible that different related and unrelated gene(s) may control the coloring of these various parts.

The petioles, adaxial (top) surfaces, and abaxial (bottom) surfaces of leaves, as well as the stems, calyx(s), and pistils color differently in various strains.

Since most of the outer leaves are removed during manicuring, the color expressed by the calyx(s) and inner leaves during the late flowering stages will be all that remains in the final product.

This is why strains are only considered to be truly purple or truly gold if the calyx(s) maintain those colors when dried.

Anthocyanin accumulation in the stems is sometimes considered a sign of phosphorus deficiency, but in most situations this event results from unharmful excesses of phosphorus or it is a genetic trait.

Also, cold temperatures might interfere with phosphorus uptake resulting in a deficiency.

Pistils in Hindu Kush strains are quite often magenta or pink in color when they first appear ie) saffron.

They are viable at this time and turn reddish brown when they wither, as in most strains.

Purple coloration usually indicates that pistillate plants are over-mature and cannabinoid biosynthesis is slowing down during the cold autumn weather.

Cannabinoid Profile


It is supposed that variations in the type of “high” associated with different strains of Cannabacaea may result from varying levels of certain prevalent cannabinoid molecules resident in the Trichomes of the plant.

(THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient which is acted upon synergistically by small amounts of (CBN), (CBD), and the other accessory (63) minor cannabinoids.

We know that cannabinoid levels may be used to establish cannabinoid phenotypes and that these phenotypes are passed on from parent to offspring.

Therefore, cannabinoid levels are in part determined by gene(s).

To accurately characterize certain different “highs” from various individuals and to establish criteria for breeding strains with particular cannabinoid contents, an accurate and easy method is necessary for measuring cannabinoid levels in prospective parents.

Various combinations of these traits are possible and inevitable.

The traits that we most often see are most likely dominant and any effort to alter genetics and improve Cannabacaea strains are most easily accomplished by concentrating on the major phenotypes for the most important traits.

The best breeders set high goals of a limited scope and adhere to their ideals.

Cannabinoid Levels


Breeding Cannabacea for cannabinoid level has been accomplished by both licensed legitimate and clandestine researchers.

Warmke (1942) and Warmke and Davidson (1943-44) showed that they could significantly raise or lower the cannabinoid level by selective breeding.

Small (1975a) has divided genus Cannabacea into four distinct chemotypes based on the relative amounts of (THC) and (CBD).

Recent research has shown that crosses between {high (THC) (x) / low (CBD) (Z)} strains and {low (THC) (X) / high (CBD) (z) strains yield offspring of cannabinoid content intermediate between the two parents.

In addition, Beutler and der Marderosian (1978) analyzed the (F1) offspring of the controlled cross between Cannabacaea Cannabis sativa de Mexico {high (THC) (x)} with Cannabacaea Cannabis ruderalis de Russia {low (THC) (X)} and found that they also fell into two groups intermediate between the parents in (THC) level.

This indicates that (THC) production is most likely controlled by more than one gene.

Also the (F1) hybrids of the lower (THC) phenotype (resembling the staminate parent) were twice as frequent as the higher (THC) hybrids (resembling the pistillate parent).

More research is needed to learn if (THC) production in Cannabacaea is associated with the sexual type of the high (THC) parent or if the high THC characteristics are recessive.

According to Small (1979), the cannabinoid ratios of strains grown in northern climates are a reflection of the cannabinoid ratio of the pure, imported, parental strain.

This indicates that cannabinoid phenotype is genetically controlled, and the levels of the total cannabinoid(s) are determined by environment.

Complex highs produced by various strains of drug Cannabacaea may be blended by careful breeding to produce hybrids of varying psychoactivity, but the level of total psychoactivity is dependent on environment.

This is also the telltale indication that unconscious breeding with undesirable low (THC) parents (xx) could rapidly lead to the degeneration rather than the improvement of the drug strain.

It is obvious that individuals of fiber strains are of little if any use in breeding drug strains.

Breeding for cannabinoid content and the eventual characterization of varying highs produced by Cannabacaea is totally subjective guesswork without the aid of modern analysis techniques.

A chromatographic analysis system would allow the selection of specific cannabinoid types, especially staminate pollen parents.

Selection of staminate parents always presents a problem when breeding for cannabinoid content because staminate plants usually express the same ratios of cannabinoid(s) as their pistillate counterparts, but in much lower quantities, and they are rarely allowed to reach full maturity for fear of seeding the pistillate portion of the crop.

A simple bioassay for (THC) content of staminate plants is performed by leaving a series of from three to five numbered bags of leaves and tops of various prospective pollen parents along with some rolling papers in several locations frequented by a steady repeating crowd of marijuana smokers.

The bag completely consumed first can be considered the most desirable to smoke and possibly the most psychoactive.

It would be impossible for one person to objectively select the most psychoactive staminate plant since variation in the cannabinoid profile is subtle.

The bioassay reported here is in effect an unstructured panel evaluation which averages the opinions of unbiased testers who are exposed to only a few choices at a time.

Such bioassay results can enter into selecting the staminate parent.

It is difficult to say how many gene(s) might control (THC) acid synthesis.

Genetic control of the biosynthetic pathway could occur at many points through the action of enzymes controlling each individual reaction.

It is generally accepted that drug strains have an enzyme system which quickly converts CBD-acid to THC-acid, thus favoring THC-acid accumulation.

Fiber strains lack this enzyme activity, so CBD-acid accumulalion is favored since there is little conversion to THC-acid.

These same enzyme systems are probably also sensitive to changes in heat and light.

It is supposed that variations in the type of high associated with different strains of Cannabacaea result from varying levels of cannabinoid(s).

(THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient which is acted upon synergistically by small amounts of (CBN), (CBD) and the other (63) minor accessory cannabinoid(s) discovered to date.

Terpenes and other aromatic constituents of Cannabacaea might also potentiate or suppress the effect of (THC).

We know that cannabinoid levels may be used to establish cannabinoid phenotypes and that these phenotypes are passed on from parent to offspring.

Therefore, cannabinoid levels are in part determined by genes.

To accurately characterize highs from various individuals and establish criteria for breeding strains with particular cannabinoid contents, an accurate and easy method is needed for measuring cannabinoid levels in prospective parents.

Inheritance and expression of the cannabinoid chemotype is certainly complex.

Taste and Aroma


Taste and Aroma are closely linked.

As our senses for differentiating taste and aroma are connected, so are the sources of taste and aroma in Cannabacaea.

Aroma of Cannabacaea


The human olfactory complex “smells” aromatic molecules sifting through the air that are produced primarily by aromatic terpene(s) as components of the resin secreted by glandular trichomes on the surface of the calyx(s) and subtending leaflets.

When a floral cluster is squeezed, the resinous heads of glandular trichomes rupture and the aromatic terpene(s) are exposed to the air.

There is often a large difference between the aroma of fresh and dried floral clusters.

This is explained by the polymerization, or joining together in a chain of many of the smaller molecules of aromatic terpene(s) to form different aromatic and non-aromatic terpene polymers.

This happens as Cannabacaea resins age and mature while the plant is growing and while the plant matter is curing after the harvest.

Additional aromas may interfere with the primary terpenoid components, such as ammonia gas and other gaseous products given off by the plant matter during the curing process, by fermentation or by spoilage of the non-resin tissue portions of the floral clusters.

A combination of at least twenty (20) of the (103) aromatic terpene(s) known to occur in Cannabacaea plus other by-product aromatic compounds do control the aroma, and therefore taste of each plant.

Therefore, it is a complex matter to breed Cannabacaea for aroma and taste, and production of this trait may not be for the faint of heart breeder who does not possess “the patience of Job”.

For example, breeders of perfume roses often are amazed at the complexity of the genetic control of aroma.

Each strain, however, has several characteristic aromas, and these are occasionally transmitted to hybrid offspring such that they resemble one or both parents in aroma.

Many times breeders complain that their strain has lost the desired aromatic characteristics that once existed in the (P1) parental strains.

This effect is undoubtedly the result of the recombination of the genes at the ‘crossover points’ of the intertwined legs of the paired homologous chromosomes within the tetrads prior to the time when the spindle fibers pull the tetrads apart and send the dance of meiosis back to either side of the cell.

However, fixed hybrid strains can develop a characteristic aroma that is hereditary and often true-breeding.

The cultivator possessing preservation of a particular aroma as a goal can be cloned.

The resulting cloned individuals will retain the desired aroma.

In addition, breeding forward can focus on the desired aroma trait through “back-crossing” with the parent originally selected for the trait.

This is good insurance in case the aroma is lost in the (F1) or (F2) offspring by segregation and/or recombination of the many gene(s) located on the (10) inherited diploid chromosomes.

The aromas of fresh or dried clusters are sampled and compared in such a way that they are separated to avoid confusion.

Each sample is placed in the corner of a twice-folded, labeled piece of unscented writing paper at room temperature (above 650).

A light squeeze will release the aromatic principles contained within the resin exuded by the ruptured glandular trichome head.

When sampling, never squeeze a floral cluster directly, as the resins will adhere to the fingers and create a further bias as the resin interacts with sampling skins.

The folded paper conveniently holds the floral cluster, avoids confusion during sampling, and contains the aromas as a glass does in wine tasting.

The Taste of Cannabis


Taste in Cannabacaea is divided into three separate categories according to usage:

  1. The taste of the aromatic components carried by air that passes over the Cannabacaea when it is inhaled without being lighted;
  2. The taste of the smoke from burning the Cannabacaea, and
  3. The taste of the Cannabacaea when it is consumed orally.

The terpenes contained in a taste of unlighted Cannabacaea are the same as those sensed in the aroma, but perceived through the sense of taste instead of smell.

Orally ingested Cannabacaea generally tastes bitter due to the vegetative plant tissues, but the resin is characteristically spicy and hot, somewhat like cinnamon or pepper.

Taste can also be easily sampled by loosely rolling dried floral clusters in a cigarette paper and inhaling to draw a taste across the tongue.

Samples should be approximately the same size.

The taste of Cannabacaea smoke is determined by the burning tissues and vaporizing terpenes.

These terpenes may not be detected in the aroma and unlighted taste.

Biosynthetic relationships between terpenes and cannabinoids have been firmly established.

Indeed, cannabinoids have been found to be synthesized within the plant from terpene precursors.

It is suspected that changes in aromatic terpene levels parallel changes in cannabinoid levels during maturation.

As connections between aroma and psychoactivity are uncovered, the breeder will be better able to make field selections of prospective high-level THC parents without complicated analysis by simply focusing on the aroma of the plant.

Like sniffing for surface oil in Texas to wildcat.

The Aromatic Persistence of Terpenes


Some Cannabacaea resins deteriorate rapidly as they age exposing the resin contents to oxygen.

This allows the aromatic principles and cannabinoids to break down over time until they are hardly noticeable at all.

Since fresh Cannabacaea is only available once a year in temperate regions, an important breeding goal has been to isolate a strain that keeps well when packaged.

Package ability and shelf life are important considerations in the breeding of fresh fruit species and will prove equally important in trade if Cannabacaea genetically develops further after legalization.

Trichome Type


Several types of trichomes are present on the epidermal surfaces of Cannabacaea.

Several of these trichomes are glandular and secretory in nature and can be divided as to type, as follows:

  • bulbous trichomes,
  • capitate sessile trichomes, and
  • capitate stalked trichomes.

Of these, the capitate stalked type glandular trichomes are apparently responsible for the intense secretion of cannabinoid laden resins.

Plants with a high density of capitate stalked type trichomes are a logical goal for breeders of drug Cannabacaea.

The number and type of trichomes is easily characterized by observation with a small 10 X loop or 50 X hand lens.

Recent research by V. P. Soroka (1979) concludes that a positive correlation exists between the number of glandular trichomes on leaves and calyx(s) and the various cannabinoid contents of the floral clusters.

In other words, many capitate stalked type trichomes means higher levels of biosynthesized (THC) within the trichomes.

Resin Quantity and Quality


Resin production by the glandular trichomes varies.

A strain may have many glandular trichomes, but the trichomes may not secrete very much resin.

Resin color also varies from strain to strain.

Resin heads may darken and become more opaque as they mature, as suggested by several authors.

Some strains, however, produce fresh resins that are a transparent amber color instead of being clear and colorless, and these are often some of the most psychoactive strains.

Transparent resins, regardless of color, are a sign that the plant is actively carrying out resin biosynthesis.

When biosynthesis ceases, resins turn opaque as cannabinoid and aromatic levels decline.

Resin color is certainly an indication of the conditions inside the resin head, and this may prove to be another important criterion for breeding.

Resin Tenacity is…

For years strains have been bred for hashish production.

Hashish is formed from detached resin heads.

In modern times it might be feasible to breed a strain with high resin production that gives up its precious covering of resin heads with only moderate shaking, rather than the customary flailing that also breaks up the plant.

This would facilitate hashish production.

Strains that are bred for use as marijuana would benefit from extremely tenacious resin heads that would not fall off during packaging and shipment.

Ease of Manicuring


One of the most time-consuming aspects of commercial drug Cannabacaea production is the seemingly endless chore of manicuring, or removing the larger leaves from the floral clusters.

These larger outer leaves are not nearly as psychoactive as the inner leaves and calyx(s), so they are usually removed before selling as marijuana.

Strains with fewer leaves obviously require less time to manicure.

Long petioles on the leaves facilitate removal by hand with a small pair of scissors.

If there is a marked size difference between very large outer leaves and tiny, resinous inner leaves it is easier to manicure quickly because it is easier to see which leaves to remove.

Seed Characteristics


Seeds may be bred for many characteristics including size, oil content, and protein content.

Cannabacaea seed is a valuable source of drying oils, and Cannabacaea seed-cake is a fine feed for ranch animals.

Higher-protein varieties may be developed for food.

Also, seeds are selected for rapid germination rate.

Maturation: (M) late / (m) early


Cannabacaea strains differ greatly as to when they mature and how they respond to changing environment.

Some strains, such as Mexican and Hindu Kush, are famous for early maturation, and others, such as Colombian and Thai, are stubborn in maturing and nearly always finish late, if at all.

Imported strains are usually characterized as either early, average, or late in maturing.

However, a particular strain may produce some individuals which mature early and others which mature late.

Through selection, breeders have, on the one hand, developed strains that mature in four weeks, outdoors under temperate conditions.

And, on the other hand, they have developed green house strains that mature in up to four months in their protected environment.

Early maturation is extremely advantageous to growers who live in areas of late spring and early fall freezes.

Consequently, especially early-maturing plants are selected as parents for future early-maturing strains.

Gross Resultant Phenotypes of Cannabacaea Strains


The gross phenotype or general growth form is determined by size, root production, branching pattern, sex, maturation, and floral characteristics.

Most imported varieties have characteristic gross phenotypes although there tend to be occasional rare examples of almost every phenotype in nearly every variety.

This indicates the complexity of genetic control determining gross phenotype.

Hybrid crosses between imported pure varieties were the beginning of nearly every domestic strain of Cannabacaea.

In hybrid crosses, some dominant characteristics from each parental variety are exhibited in various combinations by the (F1) offspring.

Nearly all of the offspring will resemble both parents and very few will resemble only one parent.

This sounds like it is saying a lot, but this (F1) hybrid generation is far from “true-breeding” and the subsequent (F2) generation will exhibit great variation, tending to look more like one or the other of the original imported parental varieties, and will also exhibit recessive traits not apparent in either of the original parents.

Therefore, if the (F1) offspring are desirable plants it will be more and more difficult to continue the hybrid traits in subsequent generations.

However, if enough of the original (F1) hybrid seeds are produced each year from the desirable (P1) parental crosses, in addition to the regular ‘sin semilla’ production of desirable plant material, then the seeds captured may be used next year and beyond to produce uniform crops of desirable plants.

Source: Robert Connell Clarke

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

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Alzheimer Gene Expression


Arizona Medical Marijuana Flag Button
Generally, a mutation on the Beta-amyloid gene of Chromosome 21 is responsible for the inheritance of familial Alzheimer’s disease.

Alternately, the so-called ‘pre-senilan’ gene that is switched on by the brain for the express purpose of digesting excess deposits of beta-amyloid protein may also be indicated.

As a result of this gene pair or gene singular inheritance, over-expressed circular blotches or deposits of the amyloid peptide chain (a three-dimensionally shaped protein), equal to approx. 1/10th of a millimeter in diameter become variously deposited frequently in Alzheimer patients in and around the hypocampus-medial temporal lobe area of the brain starting as early as the late 20’s of a tested positive patient’s life.

Interestingly, repetitive type motor memories such as riding a bike, or swimming, or painting are not affected by such synaptic blotches because in the Alzheimer’s patient’s brain, those areas that are infected by Alzheimer’s disease tend to be those synapse of neurons engaged in the higher cognitive skills such as short to long term memory movement in and around the hypocampus-medial temporal lobe.

Motor skill memory, on the other hand, is generally processed by the brain in a totally unrelated area of the cerebral cortex plane.

Enter Scientific American to Explain Further

In older brains, however, THC seems to have a protective effect. Campbell’s findings indicate that the biochemistry of neurons changes as the cells mature. The role of endocannabi­noids shifts to regulate different functions—most important, assisting in the survival of aged neurons. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, THC protects neurons from death in several ways. THC boosts depleted levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which, when diminished, contributes to the weakened mental function in Alzheimer’s patients. THC also suppresses the toxic effects of the so-called a-beta protein that may kill neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. It stimulates secretion of neuron growth by promoting substances such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and it dampens release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which kills neurons by overstimulation. THC and other cannabinoids also have powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions that protect neurons from immune system attack.

So, go ahead and purchase one of our featured Cannabuds™ Softball Caps and help us spring L’homme incarcere Marc Emery from his Georgia jail cell!

Source: Alzheimer Foundation

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

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Lincoln on Prohibition

Lincoln_340_x_290Prohibition goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man’s appetite by legislation and makes a crime out of things that are not crimes.”

“A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principles upon which our government was founded!”

Source:Abraham Lincoln, 1840

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

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ItsMyURLs- Robert Hempaz

Oscar da Alligator

Oscar the Alligator

Go ahead and clik the pict of Oscar the Alligator to be hyperlink‘d to the ItsMyURLs page for Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry.

Ψ out ALL of @hempaz‘s Social Profiles, Links, & Mobile QR Code at: ‘ItsMyURLs‘ #FreeMarc

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

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Psychosis v Cannabis

Are you ready to make your own 'Ganja Butter'?

Are U ready to make ‘Ganja Butter‘?

You cannot jump to the conclusion regarding these types of clinical studies.

The underlying disease of Schizophrenia has more manifestable pathways available through the brain per the ‘Paul Allen Mind Map‘ than the number of subjects studied in the underlying trial that led to such bogus hypothetical leaps and claims of cannabis causation.

RE: “All consenting patients (aged 15 to 65 years) with a first psychotic episode needing inpatient psychiatric treatment during a 2-year period between Feb 1997 and Jan 1999 were considered, confirming a total of 131 patients.”

Know your sources, people!

Source: Cannabis Therapy Institute
Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

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Cannabuds MMI™ ‘Reverse Pine’ Logo Baseball Cap

Medical Marijuana Initiative (MMI)™ Logo Badge 'Reverse Pine' Baseball Cap
‘Clik Da Cap’ to Get Your Medical Marijuana Initiative (MMI)™ Logo Badge ‘Reverse Pine’ Baseball Cap Today at the Zazzle-Hempaz Gallery of Fine Products

Mix and match your selection of five custom thread colors. Next, select your base cap color and style.

Stitch pattern designed by ‘Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry™

 

(Simply ‘Clik Da Cap‘ to see the stitch program in action.)

 


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