Ancient Epigenetic Switch Produces THCA ‘Synthase-Substrate’ Carryforward in Cannabaceae

Bembine Table

Bembine Table

DNA Mileage

Take a billion miles and multiply it by 10 to the 20th power and what do you get?

Try 10 to the 20th power billion miles!

Amazingly, that is how much length of DNA uncoil’d is in one’s human body!

The accuracy of DNA replication in our bodies is 10 to the minus 10th power or (1) mistake in every 10B base pairs of replication.

We have 10 to the 14th power of cells in our body.

Each cell has a fluid capacity or volume of less than 1 nl per cell, yet each cell holds 3 ft of DNA per cell at the double-helix, step-ladder width of about 3.4 angstroms or 3 and 4/10ths ten billionths of a meter (3.4 x 10 to the minus 10th power)

How can we possibly improve on such precise numbers?

Even our best ‘six sigma’ models using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve and control) approach to all ‘decision nodes’ along the pathway pales in comparison to the mileage we get out of our DNA molecules.

To give you a perspective, our standard ‘four sigma’ processes ie) airline baggage handling or interpreting a doctor’s prescription only grant us an accuracy of approximately (99.38%) whereas our vaunted ‘six sigma’ methodology ‘grants’ us 3.4 mistakes per million, or one out of every 294,000 attempts for a surprisingly dull accuracy of approximately (99.99966%) when compared to the ‘divine’ level of accuracy achieved in the daily replication of our DNA at the DNA polymerase copying rate of 1k nucleotides per second.

Mendel’s Classical Rules of Inheritance

Traits that will become expressed in offspring reside at specific gene locations along the DNA strand and are inherited separately per Mendel’s 1st law.

The intersection of allelic loci at the ‘crossing over points’ of homologous chromosomes during the initial gamete-genesis ‘dance of meiosis’ indeed determines what recombined characteristics encoded in the genes of expression of the staminate parent are ultimately transferred to each of the four staminate gametes, of which all four become potentially viable and what characteristics encoded in the genes of expression of the pistillate parent are ultimately transferred to each of the four pistillate gametes, of which only one of the four will become potentially viable.

Thus, any subsequent (F1) trait will have the ‘net’ effect of the intersection between each of the two (P1) specific loci, one from each parent, that is responsible for housing the gene that holds the instruction pattern that codes for the production of certain proteins that ultimately will express the subject trait in any potential offspring.

Epigenetic Imprinting

However, we now know via epigenetic imprinting what Gregor Mendel could not have the foresight of knowing, namely that a chemical ‘switch’ can indeed determine the allelic behavior of a single gene.

How can this be so, you may ask, given Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance?

Let’s use a hypothetical Cannabacaea plant cross as an example to show you how epigenetic chemical ‘switches‘ can alter the type of expression a gene may very well encode for.

Epigenetic Alteration of Gene Expression

We shall focus on the stereo enatomers THCA synthase and CBDA synthase, both of which compete for the same CBG substrate when expressed in a heterozygous, completely co-dominant (Roan) phenotype.

Assume if the co-dominant synthase chemical production gene is inherited ‘switch off’ from the mother, you would have THCA synthase expression in the (F1) generation.

And, conversely, if the co-dominant synthase chemical production gene is inherited ‘switch on’ from the father, you would have CBDA synthase.

Further, depending on which switch has been thrown, the ‘net’ expression of the subject gene can then be transferred to the (F1) generation and beyond into the subsequent (F2) and (F3) generations, et cetera, until such point due to any number of specific future epigenetic factors, the gene becomes switched back to the original alternate pole.

There is nothing to stop this switching back and forth of the gene’s mechanism, if the moments are ripe in the future stream of events to effect a switch.

Application in Human Eukaryote Cells

Since Sept 2001, especially during the 3rd trimester of a pregnancy, we now have evidence of epigenetic imprinting ‘en utero’ in humans.

How such epigenetic stresses may have an effect upon an angiosperm achene while in development within a fertilized ovule is not yet clear.

The period of time for maturation of an angiosperm achene is certainly less than the (9) month maturation process, particularly the final trimester, required to birth a ready and well functioning human baby.

Most certainly any coherent, inherited environmental effect upon a gene that can then be pin-pointed to the moment in time of the initial gamete-genesis ‘dance of meiosis’ that produced the intertwined homologous chromosomes that then became drawn away by the spindle fibers towards a second, subsequent ‘meiosis’ that created the gametes from which reproduction could then occur can not be simply ‘counted out’.

Be careful, therefore, when placing your Cannabacaea plants under stress, particularly during the phase of development called ‘gamete-genesis’.

You just may epigenetically trigger an ‘on or off’ expression of a gene or set of genes that will then be inherited in the subsequent (F1) generation of progeny and beyond with such hermaphroditic consequences as yet not quite fully understood.

Source: Lecture 21: Mendelian Genetics by Prof. Graham C Walker, MIT Biologist,
MIT Intro to Biology ver 7.014

Compile’d by: ♑ Robert Hempaz, PhD. Trichometry

Visit: Cannabuds Grow Store


About Adam Webber

Master Web-developer and Blogger
This entry was posted in Cannabacaea, Plant Botany, Plant Genetics and tagged , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to Ancient Epigenetic Switch Produces THCA ‘Synthase-Substrate’ Carryforward in Cannabaceae

  1. Pingback: The Power to Correct Our Bodies Ailments « The Epigenetics Project Blog

  2. Pingback: How Big is our Gene Program? « The Epigenetics Project Blog

  3. Pingback: Gregor Johann Mendel Quiz Questions Answers | Quizzes on Scientists

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